December 13, 2010 admin

THE PERILOUS CONSEQUENCES OF POSTMODERNISM

THE PERILOUS CONSEQUENCES OF POSTMODERNISM

In recent decades there has been a great change or shift in the way that many within Western civilization or society think and process basic ideas regarding the way in which culture should function and exist. In truth, this shift is more like a mega shift in comparison to the way that many if not most within the Western world at one time viewed life, values and the mere existence of humanity. For years among Westerners there was a sense of solid apprehension with regard to the understanding of truth and how the Biblical roots of that truth apply to the way in which the human race lives and expresses itself. An understanding of Biblical truth in essence necessitates that there must be a recognition proclaiming that ultimate truth is an objective reality and therefore exists outside of us and remains true despite the way we see or accept it.0 Sadly, there are many Christians who are unaware and greatly unequipped to combat Postmodern philosophy and in turn defend the foundations of solid Biblical doctrine that clearly define what truth really is. Herein I will explain the basic tenants of Postmodernism in an attempt to bring awareness to the perils that befall a society that sleeps its way through the numbing effects of this ever encroaching deception that has an entire generation within its crosshairs.

Introduction

There are individuals who view and accept Postmodernism in the same fashion that some accept or believe in Big Foot (Sasquatch): it may be real and could actually exist, but it is rather doubtful and even more unlikely than it is a solid reality. Sadly, some who are leaders in Christianity and even some in current ministry roles deny the fact that Postmodernism exists and even make light of the fact that some are now beginning to pay so much deliberate attention to its existence and detrimental consequences among our culture. However, to assume or suggest that Postmodernism does not exist is as ludicrous as saying to an architect or designer that postmodern architecture is not a reality. It is apparent by visiting any large Western city that there is an ever increasing amount of postmodern structures that are being built on a regular basis, which clearly and deliberately speaks to the influence of Postmodernism and how it is weaving its way throughout the society and culture of this generation rapidly.

In the sense that Postmodernism is a philosophy, it seems to have raised its head and extended its influence everywhere these days. The media, our public school systems, universities, college professors, attorneys, judges, ministers and even many of our national politicians seem to be indoctrinated and even controlled by its ideas and deliberate, philosophical agendas. While the teachings of Evangelical Christianity are overlooked and even dismissed as out of date and grossly irrelevant, Postmodernism has made great strides in creating and developing overarching thought patterns that are now clearly pervasive in much of Western Society.

As we will observe, the consequences of Postmodernism are terribly destructive, especially when it comes to the unraveling of family values and Christian heritage. In truth we are in need of immediate assistance if we as a nation and especially as the Body of Christ in fact do not understand what Postmodernism actually is and how it aggressively degenerates a society by bringing about a predictable implosion, due to immorality and unbridled lawlessness. It is incumbent upon us all to educate our children spiritually and intellectually so that they will be prepared and armed to resist the incessant barrage of immorality that Postmodernism will continue to spew forth in the years to come. Also, Christian leaders must take a lead role in standing firm on the authority of Biblical truth in every facet of life as this battle will definitely continue to wage on with aggression as time marches forward.

There are two basic truths that need to be apprehended and utilized as sources of correct navigation through the waters that have been made treacherous through the storms of Postmodernism. First, humanity is lost and in sin as Adam and Eve were when they rebelled against God and fell in the Garden of Eden. Despite modern thought patterns, humanity does not improve aside from God despite: education, life experience, tolerance, benevolence, humanitarian efforts, etc. Though there have been huge cultural shifts and varying thought patterns, the truth remains that mankind was made in God’s image and ruined by sin and therefore must have a source of redemption in order to be salvaged from eternal destruction. Satan has been aggressively working in a destructive manner throughout the ages, not just by deceiving through false philosophy, but also implementing false thought patterns for the sole purpose of deluding and destroying the souls of the human race. This is clearly his ultimate goal or paramount agenda.

Second, it is crucial when we begin to unpack Postmodernism to understand that the foundational truths and doctrines of the Word of God are immutable and have and will continue to stand the test of time, as well as scrutiny from those who deny its authoritative design and declarations. The Gospel does not change! Jesus Christ of Nazareth is the same yesterday, today and forever! Our role as Christians is to be able to present these truths with clarity, conviction and boldness as we now find ourselves among the ever growing influences of a postmodern society and world.

Defining the Perils of Postmodernism

The sovereignty of Almighty God is a basic, foundational reality in light of Christianity and the tenants of our faith. The fact is that God directs and designs everything that happens or comes to pass, even though He is not the author of sin. In essence He works all things out according to His own purposes and eternal desires. These foundational truths comprise a meta-narrative and give explanation from a broad view to the world as we embrace it as believers and followers of Jesus Christ. These overarching views give us divine purpose and present meaning to all comprised in the context of what we know and embrace as the universe. Above all the specific things regarding life, there is an eternal design and purpose for all that finds its genesis in the heart of Almighty God Himself. This is foundational as it relates to an individual’s proper ability to understand God and the Bible, and it gives us a compass by which we are able to navigate through life with a sense of divine direction and supernatural peace.

In stark contrast, the postmodernist flatly denies that a meta-narrative is even plausible or able to actually exist. Instead, the belief system of a postmodernist says that every individual human being develops or creates his or her on narrative, or sense of reality, which is predicated upon one’s social upbringing (community) or one’s own personal apprehension of knowledge. In past years the majority of individuals were inclined to think in terms of two contrasting meta-narratives: Christianity, which embraces theism and a revelation of God as seen in the Scriptures, or Humanism, which includes but is not limited to: rationalism, evolution, naturalism, progressivism, etc.

The term Postmodernism first became known in architectural circles in the 1970s, 1 however only after the publishing of Jean Francois Lytard’s The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge in English in 1984 (French edition, 1979), did the term become well used and recognized. Lytard wrote, “Simplifying to the extreme, I define postmodern as incredulity towards meta-narratives.” In other words, he is saying that truth cannot be found in one exclusive meta-narrative and whether it be science, communism (Marxism), Judaism, Islam, Christianity, or any other monolithic system of beliefs, the fact is that they fail to offer concrete evidence that they work completely and therefore Postmodernism is in turn reinforced in the wake of their weaknesses and historical failures that are seen in the eyes of a postmodernist.

There have been many historical and ecological dynamics that have brought about a sense of great disillusionment that have in turn fueled the postmodern movement and have in a sense been fuel for the fire. Some of these are: genocide in places like: The Sudan, Yugoslavia and Africa, Hitler’s Holocaust against the Jewish people, Sadam Hussein’s use of chemical weapons on his own people, global warming, the Aids epidemic, etc. The thought process of a postmodernist is that no meta-narrative can be trusted and that one belief system is as valid or invalid as the next. This mindset has brought about a strong influence of relativism and has in turn created a radical aversion to any claims that promote any sense of absolute or complete truth. Clearly defined, Postmodernism trumpets that there are no fixed truths in existence and history with its plethora of atrocities is a defining agent of this reality.

As we look at the defining elements of Postmodernism, it is important to understand that there are multiple variations within postmodern culture. In the 1960s, the Western world began to experience a philosophical shift away from modernism to the embracing of Postmodernism. Prior to this shift, for many years the influence of modernism was felt and helped to shape the world’s understanding and thinking with a strong emphasis placed upon human reasoning combined with optimism for man’s ability and human accomplishment. By way of arrogance, this modernist mindset overlooked God and the Bible completely and deliberately, which in turn assisted in the collapse of morality in part. With the recent rise of Postmodernism, it is important to understand that at its core it is antinomian and teaches that the elements of right and wrong or good and evil is simply a matter of human opinion, choice or understanding. Therefore, one view is as good or bad as another. The dire result of this is that Western culture has and continues to slide down a slippery slope of unbridled lawlessness. This can be seen clearly in the destruction of the family unit, the escalating divorce rate, the radical homosexual agenda, the embracing of abortion on demand, the level of tolerance that has masqueraded itself as love among evangelical Christians, etc.

Christian scholar Thomas Olden states that the age of modernism was in effect for about 200 years. He believes that its influence stretched from the fall of the Bastille in the year 1789 to the fall of the Berlin Wall in the year 1989.2 We can now see how this shift to Postmodernism has assisted in the rise of enlightenment which in turn has fueled the exaltation of the rights of man. Therefore, in the mind of the current postmodernist, the Bible and Christianity are sources of antiquity relegated to past ages and human logic or reasoning have now assumed the place of God among mankind. As David Dockery stated; “The enchantment of modernity is characterized by technological messianism, enlightenment idealism, quantifying empiricism, and smug fantasy of inevitable historical progress.”3

Deconstructionism as it Pertains to Postmodernism

The definitions of Postmodernism can vary, but one clear aspect that is somewhat commonly accepted is that of Deconstructionism. When it comes to this dynamic, the influences of Roland Barthes (1915-1980) and Michael Foucault (1926-1984)4 have proven to have had far-reaching ramifications to say the least. The fulcrum of their idea is based on the existence of the plethora of languages among humanity. They feel that language, whether written or verbalized, does not relate to objective truth; instead it is only a type or system of linguistic characters or signs that in essence only relates back to itself and therefore no true objective meaning can be brought to light through language alone. Therefore, you can read the New Testament and see in the gospels where events took place in the first century AD in the land of Israel. You can also read of the birth, life, death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ of Nazareth in the gospels. However, the postmodern critics would say that all of these things are in fact untenable. They would aggressively contest that the original writers of the New Testament are no longer alive, so one could assume whatever they want to with regard to their writings and what they intended to say or propagate. In other words, there is no objective meaning to the world beyond one’s own private interpretation, paradigm or perception. Based on Barthes, any communication that is based on an objective world is simply an effort by the bourgeoisie to manipulate by power. According to Jacques Derrida (b.1930) outside of itself, a text has no real point of reference.5

Deconstructionism forcefully proclaims that there in fact is no outlet from the hermeneutical circle (i.e., interpretation of what is written). Regarding the usage of words, their understanding is limited or constrained by the usage of other words and words are greatly self-limiting in nature to begin with. Language therefore is unable to refer adequately to objective reality since the clear understanding of a text in essence subverts itself.6 In other words, anything that is actually communicated through writing will project meanings and thoughts that the original author did not intend and could not have intended them to mean. Also, according to Deconstructionism an author is unable to effectively express in words effective meaning to begin with.

This philosophy is disconcerting and troubling to say the least! If we are limited by our basic way of communication due to the mindset that words are unable to convey or reflect objective truth, then what can we do? As Christians our entire belief system is built upon the words or language of the Bible. The meta-narrative of the Word of God: from Genesis to Revelation, the creation to the fall of man, the call of Abraham, the formation of the nation of Israel, the Law of Moses, the judges, the prophets, the kings, the return of Jesus, the fulfillment of prophecy, etc. are all predicated through what we read and perceive by way of languages. Douglas Groothuis responds effectively to Deconstructionism by stating, “When postmodernists seek to disparage meta-narratives, deconstruct truth into language games, and render spirituality a mixture of subjective, compelling elements, evangelicals must bring objective truth back to the table as the centerpiece of concern.”7 Groothuis proceeds by asserting that leading evangelicals have compromised truth and have in turn threatened our ability to hear Almighty God speak through the Scriptures anymore. Groothuis commends Carl F. H. Henry for his important six volumes God, Revelation and Authority (1976-1983).8 Henry here unwaveringly upholds the absolute nature of propositional revelation. Groothuis also adequately points out that there are some modern evangelicals who are rapidly departing from this basic postulate as well and are being deceived by way of Postmodernism in their embracing to some extent of the tenants of Deconstructionism.

As all of this is processed and looked at candidly from a Christian worldview, we cannot afford to be daunted or silenced by the aggressive resistance to the declaration of gospel preaching regarding objective realities or to the resistance of propositional truth. The apostle Paul was confronted with similar challenges while visiting Athens, Greece. As Paul stood and presented truth boldly, so must Christians do so today. He started off by exposing the idolatrous disposition of the Athenians. Paul then polarized the foolishness of this engrained idolatry by pointing to the altar that bore the inscription “TO THE UNKNOWN GOD” upon it. From there Paul began to develop what we now know as the Bible story-line. He started with creation and implemented that God, the creator of the universe has never forsaken humanity and His creation, and He is and has always been in control of the universe by nature of His transcendence. Paul then boldly proclaimed man’s utter need of repentance in order for preparation of the upcoming Great Judgment that will befall mankind.9

The foolishness of Deconstructionism can be vividly apprehended in the awesome fact that Jesus Christ has built His Church worldwide in more than 220 nations and in the midst of over 1,000 languages! Praise God! If it were true that language is unable to convey meaning, then how is it possible for all these various ethnic groups to possess the same basic belief system of faith? How do they embrace and believe the same Bible? How are they all followers and worshippers of the same Triune God? In truth, Deconstructionism is but another excuse to push away the truth that brings all mankind to an ultimate decision and reality of their lost state of being and their desperate need for regeneration.

Moral Relativism as it Pertains to Postmodernism

Francis Schaeffer referred to an absolute as “a concept which is not modifiable by factors such as culture, individual psychology, or circumstances but which is perfect and unchangeable. An absolute is the complete opposite of relativism.” Nihilism is “a denial of all objective grounds for truth.”10 Therefore, Postmodernism in its philosophical approach and purpose is clearly nihilistic. Nihilism in its basic position rejects beliefs regarding religion or morality. It denies any grounds for anything to be considered absolute or truthful. This is completely opposite of Christianity which states its entire belief system on the facts comprised in the Bible. For Christians, the Bible is God’s Holy Word without error or contradiction. Within that Word there are multiple absolutes such as: God’s existence, God’s unwavering moral law (the Ten Commandments), Christ’s absolute second coming, etc. These absolutes give followers of Jesus their identity and comfort in this world, as well as confidence of their salvation and security in the world which is to come.

In stark contrast, Moral Relativism is enthusiastically supported by a strong mindset and belief system that assumes and aggressively promotes that the human race evolved over time from animal species. This false philosophical stance embraced by many, now completely dominates much of today’s scientific community. It seems that this concept has done more to influence the way that people understand themselves and their relationship to their world than any other theory that has been introduced from a scientific point of view. No longer just connected to science (biology), the belief of Moral Relativism fueled by evolution has become a complete philosophy that claims to define the beginning and development of everything subject to a closed universe, which thereby rules out the ability for God to even exist. The evolutionary belief system has become so strong among academic institutions or communities that anyone who opposes its views is often considered to be absolutely ignorant and surely faces great ridicule and public shame. For example, Sir Julian Huxley extolled it to the highest in declaring, “Evolution is the most powerful and the most comprehensive idea that has ever arisen on earth.”11 With this mindset being so pervasive among educational institutions and sources, it is imperative for Christians to be able to defend their faith or system of beliefs with understanding and effectiveness in this critical time of history. The fact is that we cannot wait for another generation to arise in defense of morality and truth, because unless we act and act immediately, there might not be another generation that is able to do so unless we bequeath valuable truths to them with clarity and effectiveness.

The ramifications of moral relativism are surely grim to say the least. Some of the results of this philosophy can be seen through Hitler instituting the idea of suppressing the weak in order to allow the strong to arise and take their rightful place. We see this attempted as Hitler tried to completely extinguish the entire Jewish race through genocide. Also, Marxism was stimulated by this same philosophical mindset and resulted in extensive human tragedy which extended for many years and reached into many countries with the result being the suffering of millions of people.12 Even today we can still see the out workings of Marxism as many people and nations are still experiencing its stinging bite.

As we ponder the results of Moral Relativism and the philosophical views of evolution that are so closely connected with it, we must apprehend and become apprehended by the importance of God’s law and how it relates to the consciousness of all mankind. Paul gives great understanding to this importance in Romans as he explains the place of the moral law in the lives of individuals. In his own life the tenth commandment aided in bringing him to the end of his own works based righteousness (Rom. 7:8-12). Completely different from postmodernists, Paul deliberately lived with a philosophy that fully accepted the history of revelation. We can see this by his words in Romans 2:15: “The requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them.” Therefore, as we combat Moral Relativism, our ability to speak to man’s consciousness with regard to the absolute truths of God’s moral law is completely imperative as we attempt to bring clarity and change in a postmodern society.

Pluralism as it Pertains to Postmodernism

Today Pluralism can be seen in the ever growing level of diversity that we behold regarding but not limited to: religion, race, heritage, cultural expression, sexual orientation, value systems, tolerance among religious leaders, etc. The philosophy of Pluralism basically declares that all opinions in essence have the same value, and that there are no real values at all, except to the individual or individuals who hold to or actually believe in those values.

There is an overwhelming view among postmodernist that because of strong adherence to absolute values (especially in religion), the ensuing result has been and continues to be multiple wars, ongoing strife and great persecution as a direct result. Some of the clear examples that postmodernist could refer to are: the burning of the Protestant martyrs, the crusades of the past involving Christians and Muslims, the abuse of the Jews at the hands of Christians throughout the centuries, the Protestant/Catholic struggle in Northern Ireland, fundamentalist Islam, the terror attack on September 11, 2001, the ongoing threat of fundamentalist Islamic terrorism throughout the world, etc. In light of these atrocities, many view religion as a culprit that simply relates to or causes ongoing trouble, and in order to have any sense of credibility or acceptance in modern society one must assume and proclaim a sense of tolerance, especially in the area of religious expression and or affiliation. The common mindset within the philosophy of Pluralism is that all religions most likely have some measure of truth, peace and comfort to offer. Among pluralist, the great heresy would be to assume and promote one’s own religion as absolute truth while at the same time proclaiming that other religions are nil and void.

On a side note, it is interesting to see how there are now some European cities today that have become more Asian than they are European. One such city is Bradford, England where among the Asian population majority; the Muslim community is prevalent in nature and continues to grow. As we see this happening in various places around the world it is important to point out that many Muslims aggressively and unashamedly propagate their faith or belief systems without the slightest hint of fear or hesitation. They are not backwards in reminding the world that they are the ones in possession of the only true, authoritative scriptures which are contained in their inspired, sacred book know as the Quran, which they believe is more relevant than the Bible or any other holy book due to the fact that their own prophet, Mohammed received direct, divine revelation from Allah and also because he post dates Jesus Christ of Nazareth, which in turn makes the Quran more up-to-date in their frame of reference. Despite this level of forceful propagation among Muslims, postmodernists still have not yet taken hold of or really noticed the Muslim community; in truth they live within their own world so to speak. There even seems to be a sense of anger that arises in our modern culture when the tenants of the Muslim faith are addressed in light of their lack of tolerance, monolithic mindset, religious worldview, thought patterns regarding women, etc.13

In an environment of tolerance fueled by Pluralism, it is imperative for Christians to articulate with clarity the absolute fact that Christianity and the Bible are comprehensive and absolute (complete). Even though Postmodernism promotes a philosophy that proclaims that every individual is entitled to choose and have their own personal belief system and that nobody should assert or proclaim that their belief system is superior to any others, the fact remains that we must adhere to scripture which declares that Jesus Christ is the Way, the Truth and the Life and that He is the only way to the Father and to eternal life in Heaven. His uniqueness is clearly defined in that He was prophesied in detail centuries before His actual birth, He had a virgin birth, He lived a life without sin, He made definite “I AM” claims of Deity, He performed multiple miracles, He made a sacrifice of Himself that ended all sacrifices, He sent the Holy Spirit, He is the Creator of the world and He is the Judge of all mankind.

In our quest to defend the Christian faith while combating Pluralism it is important to remember that in salvation, Jesus is completely unique in the way that He provides and imputes righteousness, which in turn brings justification to a sinner separated by God. This is accomplished by the past work of Jesus on the Cross and also through the power and truth of His resurrection. His work currently is also unique in the sense that the Bible declares that He ever lives to make intercession for all those who come to the Father through His completed work on Calvary. His salvation is absolute and complete in the future as well when Jesus provides immortal (glorified) bodies to those true followers or believers of His. As we think upon these things, it is clear that there is no other man that could possibly do these things, because all others are subject or relegated to death and the grave, unlike Jesus. This immutable truth completely trumps Pluralism and should encourage Christians to walk in boldness as we defend our faith in Jesus Christ and the absolute truths of the Word of God.

Existentialism as it Pertains to Postmodernism

A close cousin to Postmodernism is that of Existentialism. In philosophical terms, Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) is known by many as the father or creator of Existentialism. Even though it came into existence many years before Postmodernism, Existentialism has clearly become part of Western culture and the societal mindset of the day. Kierkegaard in his desire to introduce Existentialism was actually responding to the weak display of Christianity in Denmark, by placing a strong emphasis on the authenticity of the individual Christian. Christian philosophers Norman Geisler and Paul Feinberg point out a very important feature of Kierkegaardian “truth.” They state that Kierkegaard never denies such a thing as objective truth: he merely denies its importance over what he calls “subjective” truth.14

Existentialism is basically interested in the nature of being and the nature of existence. It declares that genuine existence is resolute and makes choices; existentialist philosophy is therefore intended to include the entire person. The objective realm is foolishness and absent of any human significance or purpose. Existentialism is in turn predicated on inner experiences of the will and emotions and is basically subjective. The existentialist embraces that there is no real meaning in any certain thing or in all things put together. In its extreme view, the entirety of the world becomes without meaning and altogether foolish or absurd.

Francis Schaeffer drew attention to the leap of faith as described by Kierkegaard. His basic thought was that since there is no objective reality upon which we can trust or rely upon, we therefore must make a leap of faith. Within this leap of faith there is a uniquely personal experience, an experience which is valid for the individual because truth is truth as it relates only to the individual’s ability to process truth.15

Existentialism and the search for meaning and reality within an individual can be somewhat comparable to the usage of narcotics (drugs). Through the usage of narcotics a person attempts to and hopes to experience a sense of reality; some definite experience that will aide in giving his or her life purpose and meaning of existence. The narcotic might create a sense of euphoria and a sense of stimulation, or a great feeling of well-being upon initial usage. This feeling, however, is not real life and is only briefly experienced because it is only biological and it is also physically destructive in the midst of the experience. The desire for “more” can and does often lead to a grave addiction and addiction can definitely and often does end in mortal death. Therefore, the perceived reality apprehended by the individual who had the actual experience, in the end proves to be false and personal and spiritual destruction are the actual themes to the final chapter of their life. Such is the case in the life of an existentialist.

In Existentialism, feelings are paramount and despite the broad range of religious, philosophical and political ideologies, the foundational concepts of existentialism can be explained as follows: humanity possesses a free will, life can be summed up as a series of personal decisions that can and do create stress, few choices are decided upon that are void of any ramifications, there are things that are irrational or absurd and without clear context or explanation, and if an individual does indeed make a decision, he or she must follow through with that choice.16 Existentialism, generally explained, is therefore a group of philosophical systems concerned with free will, choice, and personal responsibility. Because we make choices based on our experiences, beliefs, personal opinions and biases, those choices are unique to us and made without an objective form of truth. Existentialists believe that there are no “universal” guidelines for most decisions. Instead, even trusting science is often considered a real stretch for a true existentialist.

In confronting Existentialism in a Postmodern Society, Christians must focus on the matters of objective truth, moral law, the solidity of the Word of God, and the fact that individuals if left to themselves without any moral governance are surely bound for ultimate deception, which always leads to eternal destruction based upon being separated forever from the Creator of the Universe.

Conclusion

Listen to the words recorded by Gene Edward Veith in his book on Postmodernism, “I belong to the Blank Generation. I have no beliefs. I belong to no community, tradition or anything like that. I’m lost in this vast, vast world. I belong nowhere, I have absolutely no identity.”17 This sadly becomes the theme of a generation poisoned by the perils of Postmodernism. The fact is that we were designed by our creator to relate to other humans and to enjoy fellowship with the Triune God, as well as other Christians. Christians are literally given access to the heart of the Trinity which is altogether comprised of perfect love. The Father has perfect love for the Son. The Son has eternal and perfect love for the Father and the Holy Spirit loves the Father and the Son completely. Jesus referred to our blessed union with the Father and in that frame of reference He prayed with great fortitude for the ultimate unity of His Church. The ultimate expression of this unity is one of deep love which when experienced by an individual provides identity, acceptance, purpose, hope and security. In light of this overwhelming truth, let us stand firmly and combat Postmodernism through the proclamation of the beautiful unwavering truths of the Bible. Let us also express the love of Christ in such a way that we become divine magnets that draw those deceived by the perils of Postmodernism into the saving knowledge and perfect love of Jesus Christ!

Written by: Keith Collins who is the founder of Generation Impact Ministries www.generationimpactministries.com and currently serves as the Director of FIRE School of Ministry in Concord, NC-www.fire-school.org

Notes
0. John MacArthur, The Truth War: Fighting for Certainty in an Age of Deception,
Thomas Nelson, 2007, p. 20

1. Donald M. MacDonald, The Monthly Record of the Free Church of Scotland.
September, 2000

2. Thomas C. Oden, Two Worlds: The Death of Modernity in America and Russia,
IVP, 1992, P. 32

3. David S. Dockery, The Challenges of Postmodernism, A Bridgeport book, 1995,
p. 25
4. Foucault found expression for his philosophical views by visiting the gay bath-
Houses of San Francisco, California, he in turn contracted Aids and died in 1984.

5. Donald A. Carson, The Gagging of God, Apollos IVP, 1996, p. 71 ff. cf. Bob
Letham, Reformation Today, 162, p. 7ff
6. Ibid, Carson, p. 72

7. Douglas Groothuis, Truth Decay, Defending Christianity against the Challenges
of Postmodernism, IVP, 2000, p. 115

8. Carl F.H. Henry, Revelation and Authority (1976-1983). The primary sections are
Vol. 3, The Bible as Propositional Revelation, p. 4554 ff. and the entirety of volume 4.

9. Carson, ibid, On heralding the Gospel in a pluralistic culture, p. 491 ff

10. Francis Schaffer, The God Who is There, Hodder, 1968, p. 178

11. John Blanchard, Does God Believe in Atheists? EP, 650 p., 2000, p. 83

12. Blanchard documents this well, ibid, p. 119ff

13. Norman L. Geisler and Abdul Saleeb, Answering Islam, Baker Book House, 1993

14. Norman L. Geisler and Paul D. Feinberg, Introduction to Phi1osophy, Grand Rapids,
MI: Baker Book House, 1980, p. 46

15. Schaffer, ibid, p. 179

16. Thomas Flynn, Existentialism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford, University Press,
2006, p. 8

17. Veith asserts this example in the book he wrote on Postmodernism. Gene Edward
Veith, Jr., Postmodernism Times – A Christian Guide to Contemporary Thought and Culture,
Crossway Books and Bibles, 1994, p. 55

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